Auerbach, Nina. “The Rise of the Fallen Woman.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction. 35.1 (Jun., 1980): 29-52.

Bland, Lucy. From “Feminist Vigilantes of late-Victorian England.” In Regulating Womanhood: Historical Essays on       
              Marriage, Motherhood, and Sexuality
. Edited by Carol Smart, 33-52. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Davis, Deanna L. “Feminist Critics and Literary Mothers: Daughters Reading ElizabethGaskell.” Signs. 17.3 (Spring, 1992):  

Gaskell, Elizabeth. Ruth. Lonfon: Dent, 1967.

Gibbon, Sir Gwilym and Reginald W. Bell. History of the London County Council, 1889-1939. London: Macmillan, 1939.

Golden, Catherine J. “Late-Twentieth-Century Readers in Search of a Dickensian Heroine: Angels, Fallen Sisters and
            Eccentric Women.” Modern Language Studies. 30.2 (Autumn,2000): 5-19.

Horn, Pamela. Victorian Countrywomen. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991. Jalland, Pat. Women, Marriage, and Politics 1860-1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Johnston, Josephine. “The Sociological Significance of the Novels of Mrs. Gaskell.” Social Forces. 7.2 (Dec., 1928): 224-227.

Matus, Jill L. Unstable Bodies: Victorian Representations of Sexuality and MaternityManchester: Manchester University 
             Press, 1995.

Pinchbeck, I. “Social Attitudes to the Problem of Illegitimacy.” The British Journal of Sociology. 5.4 (Dec., 1954): 309-323.

Ross, Ellen. Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London 1870-1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Smart, Carol. From “Disruptive Bodies and Unruly Sex.” In Regulating Womanhood: Historical Essays on Marriage,
            Motherhood, and Sexuality. Edited by Carol Smart, 7-32. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Walkowitz, Judith R. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University
          Press, 1980.

Image Gallery Works Cited

Abject Poverty in London, c. 1900; Frying Pan Alley, London, c. 1900; Dorset Street, London, c. 1900; "Here and There" Women on London Street, c. 1900; "Descendant" c. 1900; "Where Children Grow Up" c. 1900: Accessed December 16, 2005.

Children Playing, Victorian London: Accessed December 16, 2005.

Children on the Street in Victorian England; Victorian Mother and Infant: Accessed December 16, 2005.

City Street, Victorian England; Covent Garden Flower Sellers: Accessed December 16, 2005.

Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865): Accessed December 16, 2005.

Ruth-Everyman edition Book Cover: Accessed December 16, 2005.

Ruth-Penguin Classics Book Cover: Accessed December 16, 2005.

Women Condemned for Infanticide: Accessed December 16, 2005.

BBC Ideals of Victorian Motherhood: Accessed December 16, 2005.

History Paper · Images · Works Cited · Literature Paper · Links · Index