Photo Gallery




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benito_Mussolini (Accessed 12/10/05)

Benito Mussolini



Mothers of Different Classes:


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 66.

Bourgeois mother with her firstborn girl, circa 1939.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 67.

A working class mother at an ONMI clinic in Rho, late 1920s.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 67.

A peasant mother with her first three children and elders in Emilia, 1930s.



Women Working:


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 187.

A demonstration of female handicrafts, early 1930s.
Women spinners are dressed in early-fifteenth-century Lombard costumes.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 187.

Sicilian women doing menial labor.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 188.

Assembly-line workers at the ICO medical equipment factory in Bologna,
laboring under the slogan "Build, and if necessay, struggle and win."



De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 188.

Migrant field laborers in Emilia, 1930s.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 189.

The secretarial pool at the Perugina Candy Works, 1928.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 189.

The company canteen at the Perugina Candy Works, 1928.




Women Organize:


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 266.

Angiola Moretti (left) and Wanda Gorjux address fascist women, 1930.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 276.

A fascist women's luncheon under the banner of the House of Savoy, Pavia, early 1930s.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 276.

The ring ceremony, 1935:
Mothers of fallen soldiers with PNF secretary Starace and Church prelates.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 277.

A soup kitchen for mothers at Turin, staffed by fascist patronesses, early 1930s.


De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992, p. 277.

First gathering of rural housewives in Enna, Sicily, 1935.


http://encarta.msn.com/media_1500698_761553773_-1_1/Italian_Partisans_Patrolling_in_Milan_1945.html (Accessed 12/14/05)

Italian Partisans Patrolling in Milan, 1945.
Civilian resistance fighters, or partisans, played an active role in defeating Hitler’s forces in Italy. While thousands of Italian soldiers were forced to fight alongside the Nazis in Italy or on the Russian front, most Italian citizens opposed Mussolini’s Fascist regime. As the war came to an end in 1945, partisans captured Mussolini and executed him. In this photo, the partisans are women.




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