Please note: This course page is over two years old. Don't expect every link to work correctly. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact Dr. Reagin.
 

INT 296S

Meanings and Models of Motherhood in European History and Literature



  Virgin and Blessing Child


Professors Martha Driver and Nancy Reagin

Fall 2003


Information for Prof. Reagin:Mo. 12-1:30 p.m.                Office:  Rm. 1502 , 41 Park Row
                                                       Tues 3:30-5 p.m.                 Office phone: (212) 346-1723
                                                        Thur. 2-2:30 p.m.               Office fax: (212) 346-1673
                                                        & 3:30-5 p.m.                    Home phone: (973) 893-0732
                                                                                                    Email: Nreagin@aol.com


Information for Dr. Driver:
 

Office Hours:  Tues. 9-10 a.m., 2-4 p.m.                                Office: Rm. 1504, 41 Park Row
                        Thurs. 2-4 p.m.                                                 Office phone: (212) 346-1414 
[in Oct., hours may be adjusted to                                          Office fax: (212) 346-1754

morning hours]                                                                          Email: Mdriver@pace.edu
 
 

Grades

   Class Schedule

Link to Online Reserve Room

Prof. Reagin's Main Page

Prof. Driver's Main Page
 

Link to List of Assignments for Course


Texts (on sale at bookstore)

Euripedes,  Medea
Hesiod, Theogony
Shelmerdinc (trans.), Homeric Hymns
Kolve and Olson (eds.), Canterbury Tales: Nine Tales and the General Prologue
Burgess and Busby (trans.), Lais of Marie de France
Power, Medieval Women
Shakespeare, Hamlet
Shakespeare, Sonnets

These texts are only one part of your readings. Other readings will be found in the library’s online reserve room; you may download and print out these readings at your convenience.  It’s a bit more work, but they’re free.
 
 

Course Goals and Objectives
 

This course pursues several goals simultaneously.  First, it will examine motherhood as a social, historical, and literary construct.  That is, we will discuss how motherhood was defined in a variety of historical cultures: the work assigned to or expected of mothers; the ideal of the “good mother”; the relationship between mothers and fathers; and the legal position of mothers.  At the same time, we will examine motherhood and mothers in a variety of literary texts from the same periods, discussing motherhood as metaphor.

The course also aims to develop students’ familiarity with various forms of information technology, and multimedia presentations. Students will complete Web-based research assignments (on historic or literary figures), and will design their own Web pages.
 

Grades

Your grade will be based on your performance in seminar discussions, on essays which you will write at home or during class examinations, and on the IT assignments you will complete (Web pages and Web-based research).  To do well in this class, you will need to do the reading assignments before class and participate in discussion.  You will find that it is not possible to do well without having done the readings.  Each week, you will be required to hand in a short essay (one long paragraph), which discusses your reaction to the reading assignment for that week.  You will also be required to post to the class Web Board every week, before we discuss the assigned reading.  Your grade will be weighted as follows:

Participation in Seminar Discussions: 20%
and on the Web Board
2 Essays:                                       10% each
2 in class midterms                         10% each
Web page project                            40%
 

The grade for your participation in the discussions will be based on the quantity and quality of your contributions to the discussion.  To participate, you need to have finished the reading before the class meets; this sounds obvious, but there are some people who believe that they can contribute to a discussion without understanding the subject of that discussion.  They can't.  Doing the reading is not enough, however.  You need to raise questions and make comments about it, too.  If you never say a word in discussion section meetings, your grade will suffer.

HELP! If you get a low grade on a test, or if you can't make sense of the reading assignments, or if you have any problems which the lectures, COME TALK TO US ABOUT IT DURING OUR OFFICE HOURS.  It's probably a difficulty we've seen before, and we may be able to offer helpful suggestions about overcoming it.  If you ignore a problem, it always gets worse, not better.  If you have a question in class, just raise your hand.
 

Absences, Missed Tests, and Late Papers

If you are absent from class, first ask a classmate for a copy of his/her notes on the discussion.  If you still have questions after studying these notes and the reading assignment for the week, please make an appointment or come to see one of us during our office hours.  Late papers may be allowed, but only for a very short list of valid reasons, which include jury duty, an illness certified by a physician, or a death in your family.  We may require proof in each case.  You may not file with the registrar's office to take a make up exam after the end of the semester without my permission; if you do so without clearing it with one of us first, you will receive an "F" for that examination.
 

Scholastic Integrity

Cheating and plagiarism (copying an answer from someone else's essay or a book) are the most serious offenses possible in academic life.  If they occur, you will lose credit for the work in question, and your grade will certainly suffer.  In addition, Pace procedures for handling cases of scholastic dishonesty will be initiated.  We will hand out a sheet on what plagiarism is, so that you will be able to avoid making mistakes inadvertently.
 

Assignments, Discussions, and Essays
 
 

Note:  This course will meet twice a week for two hours per meeting, thus each week is set up with two sessions.  Students will do additional work with Web-based research assignments, developing their own Web pages on different historic or literary personages/figures.  In order to complete this project, students will learn to use Netscape Composer, along with other necessary IT skills.
 

Class Schedule
 

Week 1

Thurs. Sept. 4th

            Introductions and background. Definitions of motherhood: literal, metaphorical, constructed. Images of Mother Earth and creation myths.

Reading: By Tuesday, please read assigned pieces, Hymn to Demeter, in Homeric Hymns; also  Hesiod, Theogony; (page numbers for Hesiod will be given in class) also online reserve file the Golden Ass/Myths of the World
    

Week 2

    
Tues., Sept. 9th

    lecture on Demeter and Hesiod

    Discuss Hymn to Demeter, in Homeric Hymns; also  Hesiod, Theogony; (page numbers for Hesiod will be given in class) also online reserve file the Golden Ass/Myths of the World

Thurs. Sept. 11th

This class meeting will begin in the Electronic Classroom, in Birnbaum library, where we will explain the use of the Class Web Board, and how to get readings from the Online Reserve. Please go directly to the electronic classroom, located in the back of the ground floor of the library.
     
Lecture on Medea

Reading: over the weekend, please read Medea, as well as online reserve files
 
           
Week 3


Tues., Sept. 16th     

    Discuss Medea; also discuss online reserve room files From Medusa to Cleopatra: Women in the Ancient World AND Legend of Hypsipyle and Medea AND Ancient Graves of Armed Women Hint at Amazons

Lecture on motherhood in the Bible: Eve and the Old Testament

Reading for next session: online reserve file Genesis/Proverbs

Thurs., Sept. 18th

Discuss online reserve file Genesis/Proverbs

Lecture on Marian cults and the Virgin Mary, with reference to Julian of Norwich

NOTE:  Your initial Web project proposal is due this day, along with works cited list for literature paper.  See Assignment Sheet for details.

Reading for next session:  readings on the Virgin Mary in online files The Education of Women in the Middle Ages AND Mirrors of a Collective Past AND A Revelation of Love AND Jesus as Mother.  Also assigned pages in Power, Medieval Women; pages numbers will be announced in class

                     
 Week 4

Tues., Sept. 23rd

    Discuss readings on the Virgin Mary in online files The Education of Women in the Middle Ages AND Mirrors of a Collective Past AND A Revelation of Love AND Jesus as Mother.  Also discuss assigned pages in Power, Medieval Women; pages numbers will be announced in class

Lecture on real and symbolic mothers in Marie de France’s Lais, with reference to Heloise and Abelard

Reading for next session: Lais of Marie de France; also online reserve files Marie de France: Fables (BOTH files of this title) AND Letter 1: Heloise to Abelard  

    
Thurs., Sept. 25th

Discuss assigned pages (given in class) in Lais of Marie de France; also discuss online reserve files Marie de France: Fables (BOTH files of this title) AND Letter 1: Heloise to Abelard  

Lecture on Chaucer and “The Clerk’s Tale”

Reading for next session: “The Clerk’s Tale” (pages in Chaucer book, announced in class)  AND online reserve files The Clerk’s Prologue and Tale  AND Geoffrey Chaucer    

    
Week 5


Tues, Sept. 30th

    Discuss “The Clerk’s Tale” (pages in Chaucer book, announced in class)  AND online reserve files The Clerk’s Prologue and Tale  AND Geoffrey Chaucer    

    Lecture on Dhoda and Christine de Pisan

 Reading for next session: online reserve files Dhoda’s Manual AND Moral Proverbs: Christine de Pisan  AND Christine de Pisan          

Thurs., Oct. 2nd

    We will spend this session in the Electronic Classroom in the library, learning how to use Netscape Composer and to capture images.  BRING A FLOPPY DISK, to store the images you will find.

                
Week 6

Tues., Oct. 7th

    Discuss online reserve files Dhoda’s Manual AND Moral Proverbs: Christine de Pisan  AND Christine de Pisan          

    Lecture on Hamlet

Reading for next session: Hamlet, plus sonnets assigned in class

Thurs., Oct. 9th

    Discuss Hamlet and assigned sonnets by Shakespeare


Reading for next session: online reserve files Queen Elizabeth AND Religious Compositions: Elizabeth Tudor AND ALL THREE files with titles that start with Anne Boleyn



Week 7

Tues., Oct. 14th

    Lecture on Ann Boleyn and Elizabeth

Discuss online reserve files Queen Elizabeth AND Religious Compositions: Elizabeth Tudor AND ALL THREE files with titles that start with Anne Boleyn

NOTE: your lit. essay is due this day. For details, see Assignment Sheet.


Thurs., Oct. 16th

First Midterm

Reading for next session: online reserve files entitled Reformation and Counter-Reformation, ALL THREE parts: an excerpt from Natalie Davis, Women on the Margins on Marie de l’Incarnation

NOTE: your works cited list for your history readings is due this day.

Week 8

Tues., Oct. 21st

Lecture:  Marriage, Motherhood, and the Protestant Reformation

    Discuss online reserve files entitled Reformation and Counter-Reformation, ALL THREE parts: an excerpt from Natalie Davis, Women on the Margins on Marie de l’Incarnation

Thurs., Oct. 23rd

    Meet in Electronic Classroom for first hour.  You will show your progress with your Web Pages to the class, and have a chance to work on the page.  BRING YOUR PAGE on a floppy disk!

Lecture: The Enlightenment and Republican Motherhood

Reading for next session: excerpts Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women; also, Linda Kerber, The Republican Mother and the Woman Citizen.” In  Online Reserve file entitled Enlightenment, excerpts from Rousseau, “Emile”


Week 9

Tues., Oct. 28th
Discuss excerpts Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women; also, Linda Kerber, The Republican Mother and the Woman Citizen.” In  Online Reserve file entitled Enlightenment, excerpts from Rousseau, “Emile”

Lecture: Separate Spheres and Victorian Motherhood

Reading for next session: excerpt from Mothers of England in online reserve file Victorian Motherhood, excerpt from Mrs. Beeton, “Mothers of England”


Thurs., Oct. 30th

 Discuss Excerpt from Mothers of England in online reserve file Victorian Motherhood, excerpt from Mrs. Beeton, “Mothers of England”

Lecture: Working Mothers and Industrialization  

Reading for next session: excerpt from Ellen Ross, Love and Toil; and letters from “Maternity” in an Online Reserve file entitled “Working Class Mothers in the 19th Century.”

Week 10

Tues. Nov. 4th

    Discuss excerpt from Ellen Ross, Love and Toil; and letters from “Maternity” in an Online Reserve file entitled “Working Class Mothers in the 19th Century.”

Lecture: Mothers of the Race?  Motherhood, Empire, and Eugenics

Reading for next session: Online file entitled “Motherhood, Imperialism, and Eugenics.”  Please read BOTH parts!

Thurs., Nov. 6th

Discuss article by Anna Davin, “Motherhood and Imperialism”; also read Margaret Sanger, Mothers of the New Race.  All of these are in the Online files entitled “Motherhood, Imperialism, and Eugenics.”  There are two parts to this file; please be prepared to discuss both of them.

    Lecture: The New Woman, Birth Control and the Decline of Fertility

Reading for next session: Online file entitled “WWI, the New Woman, and the Decline of Fertility.”

Week 11

Tues., Nov. 11th

Discuss Jessie Pope, “Socks”; Esther Harlan, “In the Kitchen,” Colette, “Fashions,” and Mary Collins, “Women at Munition Making.” Read also excerpts from “The Weimar Republic Sourcebook.”  These readings are in the Online file entitled “WWI, the New Woman, and the Decline of Fertility.”

Lecture: Motherhood and Entitlement: the Rise of the Welfare State

Reading for next session: Online file entitled “Motherhood and the Welfare State.” Please read BOTH PARTS!

NOTE: Your history paper is due this day.  See Assignment Sheet for details.

Thurs., Nov. 13th

Discuss excerpt from Laura Pederson, “Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State,” and chapter by Pederson in “Mothers of a New World.”  These readings are in the Online files entitled “Motherhood and the Welfare State.”

Lecture: Fascism, Motherhood and Eugenics

Reading for next session: Online Reserve file entitled “Fascism.”  There are three parts to this file; please read all of them.


Week 12

Tues., Nov. 18th

Film: Germany, Pale Mother


Thurs., Nov. 20th

    We will spend this meeting in the Electronic Classroom, where you will show us all your current draft of your web page.  Be sure to bring your floppy disks!

Week 13
   
Tues., Nov. 25th

Discuss readings by from Alison Owings, “Frauen,” and from Marion Kaplan, “Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany.“ These readings are in the Online Reserve file entitled “Fascism.”  

Lecture:  Motherhood and the State in Eastern Europe after 1945

Reading for next session: Online Reserve file entitled “Women in Eastern Europe After 1945.” Please read BOTH PARTS!

Thurs. Nov. 27th

Discuss excerpts from Barbara Einhorn, “”The Great Divide? Women’s Rights in Eastern and Central Europe Since 1945” in Renate Bridenthal et al (eds.) Becoming Visible  AND Charlotte Worgitzky, “I Quit,” from Nancy Lukens and Dorothy Rosenberg (eds.), Daughters of Eve: Women’s Writing from the German Democratic Republic  These readings are in the Online Reserve file entitled “Women in Eastern Europe After 1945.” Read BOTH PARTS!

Week 14

Tues. Dec. 2nd

Second Midterm


Thurs. Dec. 4th

Please meet in Electronic Classroom, to show us your webpages

NOTE: Web Project must be turned in by Dec. 15th!  

IMPORTANT:  Please include print out and floppy disk versions.  BUT also keep a copy for yourselves.  DO NOT give us the only copy of your project!  If you give us the only copy, this can lead to real difficulties for both you and us!

Bibliography

For the entire period covered by the course:  Bridenthal Renate et al (eds.). Becoming Visible. Women in European History.  NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.

Classical Mothers

“ I have a beautiful daughter, golden like a flower”  (Sappho)
secondary sources:
Blundell, Sue. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995.

Cantarella, Eva. Pandora’s Daughters: The Role & Status of Women in Greek & Roman Antiquity. Trans. Maureen B. Fant. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1987.

Clark, Gillian. Women in Late Antiquity: Pagan and Christian Lifestyles. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Hanson, Ann E. “The Roman Family,” in Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire. Ed. D.S. Potter and D.J.

Mattingly.  Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Patterson, C. “’Not worth rearing’: the causes of infant exposure in ancient Greece.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 115: 103-23.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, whores, wives and slaves. NY: Robert Hale, 1975.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. Women in Hellenistic Egypt. NY: Schocken, 1984.

Images of Motherhood -- Judeo-Christian Readings

Biale, Rachel. Women and Jewish Law. NY: Schocken, 1984.
The Code of Maimonides. Book Four: The Book of Women. Trans. Isaac Klein. New Haven Yale UP, 1972.

Hale, Rosemary Drage. “Joseph as Mother: Adaptation and Appropriation in the

Construction of Male Virtue.” In Medieval Mothering. Ed. John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler. NY: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996, 101-116.

Henry, Sondra and Emily Taitz. Written Out of History: A Hidden Legacy of Jewish Women Revealed Through Their Writings and Letters. NY, 1978

Marcus, Jacob R., ed. The Jew in the Medieval World: A Sourcebook. Cincinnati: The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1938.

Sheingorn, Pamela. “The Maternal Behavior of God: Divine Father as Fantasy Husband.”  In Medieval Mothering. Ed. John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler. NY: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996, 77-99.

Warner, Marina. Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc,. 1976; rev ed Vintage Books, 1983.

Images of Motherhood in the Middle Ages

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales: Nine Tales and the General Prologue. Ed. V.A. Kolve and Glending Olson. NY: WW Norton & Co. Inc, 1989.

The Lais of Marie de France. Trans. Glyn S. Burgess and Keith Busby. NY: Penguin, 1988.

Power, Eileen. Medieval Women. Ed. M.M. Postan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975.

Radice, Betty. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. NY: Penguin, 1974.

Ashley,  Kathleen and Pamela Sheingorn, eds. Interpreting Cultural Symbols: Saint Anne in Late Medieval Society. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1990.

  Blamires, Alcuin. Woman Defamed and Woman Defended: An Anthology of  Medieval Texts. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

 Bynum, Caroline Walker. Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982.

Howell, Martha.  The Marriage Exchange.  Chicago: U.P. Chicago Pr., 1998.

Hahn, Cynthia.  “ ‘Joseph will perfect, Mary enlighten and Jesus save thee’: The Holy Family as Marriage in the Merode Triptych,” Art Bulletin 68 (1986), 54-66.

Lucas, Angela M. Women in the Middle Ages: Religion, Marriage, Letters. Brighton: The Harvester Press, 1983.

Mann, Jill. Geoffrey Chaucer. NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991.

Mellinkoff, Ruth. Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. Los Angeles: 1993.

Mews, Constant J. The Lost Love Letters of Heloise and Abelard. NY: St Martin’s Press, 1999.

van Os, Henk. The Art of Devotion in the Late Middle Ages in Europe 1300-1500. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1994.

Wilson, Katharina M., ed. Medieval Women Writers. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1984.

Mothers in the Early Modern/Renaissance Period

Elizabeth I, Selected Letters (hand-out), possible viewing of Elizabeth

Hariot’s Report on Virginia, 1585 (hand-out)

Kahn, Coppelia. “The Absent Mother in King Lear.” In Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe. Ed. Margaret W. Ferguson,

Maureen Quilligan and Nancy J. Vickers. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Montrose, Louis A.  “A Midsummer Night’s Dream and the Shaping Fantasies of

Elizabethan Culture: Gender, Power and Form.” In Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe. Ed. Margaret W. Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan and Nancy J. Vickers. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Shakespeare, William. The Sonnets. Ed. John Kerrigan. NY: Penguin, 1986.

Shakespeare. Hamlet. The Arden Shakespeare. NY: Routledge, 1993.

Shakespeare. The Winter’s Tale. The Arden Shakespeare. NY: Routledge, 1993

Shakespeare. King Lear. The Arden Shakespeare. NY: Routledge, 1993

Shakespeare. King John. The Arden Shakespeare. NY: Routledge, 1993.

Adelman, Janet. Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare’s Plays, Hamlet to The Tempest. NY: Routledge, 1992.

Aughterson, Kate, ed. Renaissance Woman: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 1995.

Gildenhuys, Faith, ed. A Gathering of Griseldas: Three Sixteenth-Century Texts. Ottawa: Dovehouse Editions Inc., 1996.

Harrison, G. Letters of Queen Elizabeth I, 1558-1570. NY: Greenwood Press, 1935.

Jansen, Sharon L. Dangerous Talk and Strange Behavior: Women and PopularResistance to the Reforms of Henry VIII. NY; Macmillan, 1996.

Jordan, Constance. Renaissance Feminism: Literary Texts and Political Models. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1990.

Kenyon, Olga. 800 Years of Women’s Letters. Phoenix Mill: Alan Sutton, 1992.

Otten, Charlotte F. English Women’s Voices, 1540-1700. Miami: Florida International UP, 1992.

Prior, Mary. Women in English Society 1500-1800. NY: Methuen, 1985.

Sorel, Nancy Caldwell. Ever Since Eve: Personal Reflections on Childbirth. NY: Oxford UP, 1984.

Turner, James Grantham, ed.  Sexuality & gender in early modern Europe: Institutions, texts, images. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995.

Gender, Motherhood and the Enlightenment

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Women. NY: W.W. Norton, 1988.

Hull, Isabel.  Sexuality, State, and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1995.

Landes, Joan.  Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1988.

Separate Spheres and Bourgeois Class Formation

Gaskell, Elizabeth. Mary Barton. NY: Oxford UP, 1998.

-------------.  Ruth.  NY: Oxford UP, 1981.

Davidoff, Leonore and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago P., 1991

Kaplan, Marion.  The Making of the Jewish Middle Class. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991

Wood, Mrs. Henry. East Lynne. NY: Pocket Classics, 1993

Mothers and Industrialization

Canning, Kathleen.  Languages of Labor and Gender.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1996

Frader, Laura.  Gender and Class in Modern Europe.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1997

Gender, War, and the Family

Melman, Billie.  Borderlines. Genders and Identities in War and Peace, 1870-1930.  NY: Routledge, 1998

Higonette, Margarite, ed..  Between the Lines.  Gender and the Two World Wars.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1990

Gender and Imperialism

Strobel, Margaret and Napur Chaudhuri, eds.  Western Women and Imperialism.  Bloomington, IN: Univ. of Indiana Pr., 1992

Stoler, Ann, “Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power. Gender, Race and Morality in Colonial Asia,” in Michele di Leonardo (ed.) Gender at the Crossroads of Power.

Orwell, George.  Burmese Days.  NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1962

Hansen, Karen (ed.). African Encounters with Domesticity.  New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1992

Mothers and the Welfare State

Koven, Seth and Sonya Michel (eds.). Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of the Welfare State. NY: Routlege, 1993

Bock, Giesela and Pat Thane (eds.).  Maternity and Gender Politics. Woemn and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880s-1950s. NY: Routledge, 1991

Moeller, Robert.  Protecting Motherhood. Women and the Family in the Politics of Postwar West Germany.  Berkely: Univ. of Calif. P, 1993

Women, the Family and Fascism in the early 20th Century

Victoria de Grazia. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945.  Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. P, 1992

Koonz, Claudia.  Mothers in the Fatherland.  NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1989

Bridenthal, Renate, Atina Grossmann and Marion Kaplan.  When Biology Became Destiny. Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany.NY: Monthly Review Press, 1985

Pine, Lisa. Nazi Family Policy, 1933-1945. Oxford: Berg, 1997

Heinemann, Elizabeth.  What Difference Does a Husband Make?  Single and Married Women in Nazi Germany.  Berkeley: U. of California Press, 1999

Kaplan, Marion. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany.  New York: Oxford UP, 1998

Eastern Europe After 1945

Wolf, Christa.  Patterns of Childhood.  NY: Farrar, Straus, 1984 (compares childhood and family life in Nazi Germany and Eastern Germany)

Funk, Nanette and Magda Mueller.  Gender Politics and Post Communism. NY: Routledge, 1993.

Chapter by Barbara Einhorn in Becoming Visible on women and the state in Eastern Europe
 


CV · Individual Course Webpages · Main