The Russian Social Democratic Party split into two
groups in 1903. Lenin and the Bolsheviks as they called themselves,
wanted a small party of dedicated revolutionaries, while Martov and the
Mensheviks wanted a party open to all who accepted its program and was
willing to obey its leadership. The February 1917 revolution was
largely set off by Mensheviks while Lenin was in exile, and between February
and October 1917 the antagonism between them was at its most acute. It
was then (thanks largely to Trotsky) the Military Revolutionary Committee
of the Petrograd Soviet joined the Bolsheviks that soldiers were able to
seize power for the Bolsheviks on 25 October 1917, and installed the new
Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party
Elected by the Party congresses as the executive
arm of the Party, instructed by the Party rules to direct the whole work
of the Party in the intervals between congresses. Under Lenin. the Central
Committee was an important decision-making body.
Many anti-Bolshevik groups joined forces to fight
the authority of the new government. A White Army was formed out of these
groups, to fight the powerful Red Army created in 1918 by Trotsky, and
under his leadership. The Bolshevik government was under constant threat
from the fighting, which continued from 1918 until 1921 when the Western
armies propping up the White forces were eventually withdrawn.
Five Year Plan
The transformation of women's roles was, to a considerable degree, the indirect result of the inauguration of the First Five Year Plan in 1928, the collectivization of agriculture that accompanied it, and the emergence of new patterns of authority under Stalin. Throughout the better part of the first FYP, women remained segregated in the traditional female industries. Their share of jobs in electrical stations, mining and fuel, metallurgy, and machine production held steady below 8% at the beginning of 1930. One strong advocate for women's employment noted with disappointment that despite the growing need for skilled and unskilled labor in 1929, women were moving into labor force at a snail's pace" (Goldman 23).