In 1930, Stalin was in full control. The Stalinist strategy of industrialization - with its consequences for employment, urbanization, stratification, consumption, the supply of services, and the reproduction of socialization of children - necessarily entailed the performance of particular economic and social roles by women. Some aspects of these roles were dramatically new, and all involved an intensification of societal demands.  In other respects, however, Stalinism strengthened traditional norms and patterns of behavior and extended them to new contexts.