Plans: Stalin's First Five-Year
Plan, adopted by the party in
1928, called for rapid industrialization of the economy, with an emphasis
heavy industry. It set goals that were unrealistic-- a 250 percent increase
overall industrial development and a 330 percent expansion in heavy industry
alone. All industry and services were nationalized, managers were given
predetermined output quotas by central planners, and trade unions were
converted into mechanisms for increasing worker productivity. Many new
industrial centers were developed, particularly in the Ural Mountains,
thousands of new plants were built throughout the country. But because
Stalin insisted on unrealistic production targets, serious problems soon
arose. With the greatest share of investment put into heavy industry,
widespread shortages of consumer goods occurred.
The Passage is Obtained from: Hoesel,
Frans van . "Collectivization and
Industrialization." Soviet Archives Exhibit. 10 Apr. 2001.
Soviet system of forced labor camps was first established in
1919 under the Cheka, but it was not until the early 1930s that the camp
population reached significant numbers. By 1934 the Gulag, or Main
Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, then under the Cheka's successor
organization the NKVD, had several million inmates. Prisoners included
murderers, thieves, and other common criminals--along with political and
religious dissenters. The Gulag, whose camps were located mainly in remote
regions of Siberia and the Far North, made significant contributions to
Soviet economy in the period of Joseph Stalin. Gulag prisoners constructed
the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the Moscow-Volga Canal, the Baikal-Amur main
railroad line, numerous hydroelectric stations, and strategic roads and
industrial enterprises in remote regions. GULAG manpower was also used
much of the country's lumbering and for the mining of coal, copper, and
The passage is obtained from:"Revelations
from the Russian Archives / The
Library of Congress. 01 Apr. 1996. 10 Apr. 2001.
Abbreviation of VSESOYUZNY LENINSKY
KOMMUNISTICHESKY SOYUZ MOLODYOZHI. English - All-union
Leninist Communist League Of Youth. In the history of the Soviet Union,
organization for young people aged 14 to 28 that was primarily a political
organ for spreading Communist teachings and preparing future members of
the Communist Party. Closely associated with this organization were the
Pioneers (All-Union Lenin Pioneer Organization), for ages 9 to 14, and
Little Octobrists, for the very young.
The passage is obtained from: "Komsomol."
Britannica. 1999. 01
“crib”), institution for the daytime care of infants and
young children. Such institutions appeared in France about 1840 and were
widely used in the Soviet Union, especially during the years of Stalin's
The passage is obtained from: "Day Nursery."
01 May 2001.