Five-Year Plans: Stalin's First Five-Year Plan, adopted by the party in
                                    1928, called for rapid industrialization of the economy, with an emphasis on
                                    heavy industry. It set goals that were unrealistic-- a 250 percent increase in
                                    overall industrial development and a 330 percent expansion in heavy industry
                                    alone. All industry and services were nationalized, managers were given
                                    predetermined output quotas by central planners, and trade unions were
                                    converted into mechanisms for increasing worker productivity. Many new
                                    industrial centers were developed, particularly in the Ural Mountains, and
                                    thousands of new plants were built throughout the country. But because
                                    Stalin insisted on unrealistic production targets, serious problems soon
                                    arose. With the greatest share of investment put into heavy industry,
                                    widespread shortages of consumer goods occurred.

                                    The Passage is Obtained from: Hoesel, Frans van . "Collectivization and
                                    Industrialization." Soviet Archives Exhibit. 10 Apr. 2001.

                                               Gulag: The Soviet system of forced labor camps was first established in
                                    1919 under the Cheka, but it was not until the early 1930s that the camp
                                     population reached significant numbers. By 1934 the Gulag, or Main
                                     Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, then under the Cheka's successor
                                     organization the NKVD, had several million inmates. Prisoners included
                                     murderers, thieves, and other common criminals--along with political and
                                     religious dissenters. The Gulag, whose camps were located mainly in remote
                                     regions of Siberia and the Far North, made significant contributions to the
                                     Soviet economy in the period of Joseph Stalin. Gulag prisoners constructed
                                     the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the Moscow-Volga Canal, the Baikal-Amur main
                                     railroad line, numerous hydroelectric stations, and strategic roads and
                                     industrial enterprises in remote regions. GULAG manpower was also used for
                                     much of the country's lumbering and for the mining of coal, copper, and gold.

                            The passage is obtained from:"Revelations from the Russian Archives / The
                            Gulag." Library of Congress. 01 Apr. 1996. 10 Apr. 2001.

                                               Komsomol: Russian Abbreviation of VSESOYUZNY LENINSKY
                                    KOMMUNISTICHESKY SOYUZ MOLODYOZHI. English - All-union
                                    Leninist Communist League Of Youth. In the history of the Soviet Union,
                                    organization for young people aged 14 to 28 that was primarily a political
                                    organ for spreading Communist teachings and preparing future members of
                                    the Communist Party. Closely associated with this organization were the
                                    Pioneers (All-Union Lenin Pioneer Organization), for ages 9 to 14, and the
                                    Little Octobrists, for the very young.

                            The passage is obtained from: "Komsomol." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1999. 01
                            May 2001.

                                               Crèche: (French: “crib”), institution for the daytime care of infants and
                                    young children. Such institutions appeared in France about 1840 and were
                                    widely used in the Soviet Union, especially during the years of Stalin's

                            The passage is obtained from: "Day Nursery." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1999.
                            01 May 2001.