Dr. P.V. Viswanath
Understanding Financial Statements
- Balance Sheet
- Income Statement
- What sort of Information would a Financial Analyst Look for?
- Statement of Retained Earnings
- Statement of Cash Flows
- Restating Financial Results (Ali Gursoy)
- Earnings Management and Manipulation (Scott McGregor)
The following introduction uses Erich A. Helfert, Techniques of Financial Analysis, A Modern Approach, Irwin, 9th edition.
The process of value creation has three components:
- Selecting and making sound resource commitments
- Operating resources in a competitive, cost-effective manner
- Selecting and sourcing prudent funding options.
Corresponding to these three components, we can visualize the three processes in the running of a firm:
Investment is based on plans for committing existing or new funds to three main areas:
- Working Capital
- Physical Assets
- Major Spending Programs, such as R&D, Product Development, Acquisitions, etc.
If an investment is not working out, then it is necessary to disinvest. Yardsticks, such as Net Present Value are used in making investment decisions.
Once the investments are made, it is necessary to operate the resulting projects efficiently. Decisions such as the appropriate level of operating leverage, on the production side; and the choice of price/marketing strategy on the sales side are involved in the operating process.
The profits from the operations of the firm feed into the third process, the financing process. Here dividend payout decisions have to be made, as well as the appropriate sourcing of funds from a variety of sources, both equity-based and debt-based.
In order to take the proper decisions, it is necessary for the manager to have access to the right information. Information related to the investment and the funding process can be found in the balance sheet, while information related to the operating process can be found primarily in the Income Statement. The Statement of Retained Earnings provides more details regarding the disposition of the equity account. The Statement of Cash Flows provides more detail regarding the sources and uses of cash, which can help in a proper analysis of the operations of the firm.
We will now discuss these four financial statements in a little more detail.
Assets Liabilities 1993 1994 1993 1994 Current Assets Current Liabilities Receivables 1200 1250 Payables 1229 1149 Inventories 1400 1683 Cash 1987 2087 Total Current Assets 4587 5020 Total Current Liabilities 1229 1149 Working Capital =Current Assets- Current Liabilities 3358 3871 Fixed Assets Long-term debt 3475 4300 Tangible Fixed Assets 5106 5315 Intangible Fixed Assets 3000 3000 Total assets 12693 13335 Total liabilities 4704 5449 Shareholders' equity = Owner's Equity Common Stock and Paid-in Surplus 2000 1476 Retained Earnings 5989 6410 Total liabilities and shareholders' equity 12693 13335
Damodaran presents a convenient way of categorizing the items in a balance sheet:
Assets Liabilities Long Lived Real Assets Fixed Assets Current Liabilities Short-term Liabilities of the firm Short-lived Assets Current Assets Debt Debt Obligations of the firm Investments in securities and assets of other firms Financial Investments Other Liabilities Other long-term Obligations Assets which are not physical, like patents & trademarks Intangible Assets Equity Equity Investment in Firm
Important Concepts Pertaining to the Balance Sheet:
Net Working Capital: The difference between current assets and current liabilities. This represents the amount of capital that the firm is using for the short-run needs of the business.
Shareholders Equity: The difference between what the business owns and what it owes, i.e. the shareholders wealth in the firm.
Liquidity: This refers to the speed and ease with which an asset can be converted to cash. Assets are normally listed on the balance sheet in order of liquidity.
Market Value versus Book Value: The Book Value of an asset is based on accounting concepts, which are often linked up with historical cost. This need not be the same as market value. In addition, assets such as managerial talent and liabilities such as potential product liability suits are often not represented on the balance sheet. Finance is usually interested in market value, rather than in book value.
The rule that assets are valued at book rather than market, in financial statements is generally true. However, financial investments are not always subject to this rule, since, often, dependable market values can be obtained from liquid markets. The rules that apply in this case are, in summary form, as follows:
Majority Minority Active Investment Active Investment Passive Investment > 50% ownership of asset 20% to 50% ownership of asset Between 0% and 20% ownership of asset Investments held to maturity Investments available for sale Trading Investments The accounting treatment:
The balance sheets of the two firms are consolidated, with the assets and the liabilities of the two firms being merged and shown together. The ownership stake of the minority shareholders is shown in the balance sheet as a liability.
The accounting treatment:
The investment is carried at historical acquisition cost; a proportional amount of the income of the firm is added to the book value of the investment, while dividends paid are deducted from the book value. The proportional income is reported in the income statement, but the receipt of dividends is not recognized in the income statement. However, the concomitant increase in cash is recorded.
The accounting treatment:
Shown at historical value, with interest/dividends shown in the income statement
The accounting treatment:
Valued at market, but unrealized gains and losses are shown as part of equity in the balance sheet and not in the income statement.
The accounting treatment:
Valued at market and unrealized gains/losses are shown in the income statement.
Essentially treated as a subsidiary, except that minority holdings in the owned firm are shown on the liabilities side; the same is done in the Income Statement as well.
Recorded at book value just like any other asset; except that income and dividends are treated as adjustments to the book value (dividends in this case are comparable to depreciation in the usual fixed asset case, except that there will be cash implications in our situation).
The regular income of the firm would show up on the liabilities side, as an addition to retained earnings, while in our case, it is treated as a reduction on the assets side.
Recorded at book value, just like any other asset; however, this approach differs from the equity approach in terms of how income is treated.
Since these assets are traded in a liquid market, there is a reliable price available for them, and there is an intention to use this market (since the assets are considered available for sale); in this case, this price trumps acquisition cost as an accounting measure of value. Unrealized gains-and-losses are shown on the liabilities side, and not on the assets side as in the equity approach.
For the same reasons as in the case of investments available for sale, these are valued at market. Their treatment can be compared to the treatment of inventory, but even unsold "inventory" is considered "sold," because they are so liquid and saleable.
Intangible assets, such as patents, if they are generated internally through research and development don't even show up as assets in the balance sheet since they are simply expensed. If they are acquired from other parties, then they are shown at historical value. Goodwill is an example of such an intangible asset. It is created when a firm acquires another firm where the purchase price is greater than the book value of tangible assets or intangible assets such as patents and trade names; the excess price is called goodwill. Hence it is simply a reflection of the difference between the book value of assets and the market value of the acquired firm that owned the assets.
Gross Revenues from sale of products and services Revenues Expenses associated with generating revenues - Operating Expenses Operating Income for the period = Operating Income Expenses associated with borrowing and other financing - Financial Expenses Taxes due on taxable income - Taxes Earnings to Common and Preferred Equity for current period = Net Income before Extraordinary Items Profits and Losses not associated with operations -(+) Extraordinary Losses (Profits) Profits or losses associated with changes in accounting rules - Income Changes caused by changes in
Dividends paid to preferred stockholders - Preferred Dividends = Net Income to Common Stockholders
Example: Rasputin Corporation
Income Statement (in Millions of Dollars) 1993 1994 Sales 1745 1990 Cost of Goods Sold 690 770 Depreciation 184 184 EBIT 871 1036 Interest 122 148 Taxable Income 749 888 Taxes (34%) 255 302 Net Income 494 586 Dividends 150 165 Addition to Retained Earnings 344 421
Shares Outstanding = 125 million
Earnings per share for 1993= Net Income/# shares = 494/125 = $3.95
Dividend per share for 1993= Total Dividends/# shares = 150/125 = $1.20
An Income Statement is a record of the revenues and expenses of a firm over a particular period of time using GAAP, rather than the actual cash flows.
Assets Liabilities Existing Investments
Generate Cashflows today
Includes long lived (fixed) and short-lived (working capital) assets
Assets-in-place Debt Fixed Claim on cashflows
Little or no role in management
Expected value that will be created by future investments Growth Assets Equity Residual Claim on cashflows
Significant role in management
Given the discussion of valuation principles above, we see that it is not easy to generate values for assets-in-place and growth assets from the traditional balance sheet information. For example, intangible assets are given short shrift in the traditional accounting methodology. One way to do this would be to take the research and development expenses from the Income Statement and to capitalize them.
In order to do this, we would first need to get an estimate of the amount of time that it takes for research and development to be converted into commercial products. This is called the amortizable life of the product. This would be long for a pharmaceutical company, but shorter for a software company. Suppose, for example, that the amortizable life is six years. We then collect the annual R&D expenses for the company. Assuming that the amortization is uniform over time, R&D expenses from six years ago and more, would have been fully amortized. R&D expenses from five years ago would only have one-sixth of their value unamortized; R&D from four years ago, would be two-sixths unamortized, and so on. These unamortized values are then added together to obtain an estimate of the value of R&D as an asset, following accounting principles similar to that used with Property, Plant and equipment.
This approach would, first of all, give us a better idea of the market value of the firm; secondly, by looking at the ratio of such "growth" assets to the total value of all assets, we can get a better estimate of the growth rate. In addition, the greater the proportion of such "growth" assets, the lower the proportion, we would expect, of debt in the capital structure of the firm, as will be explained in the notes on Capital Structure.
For example, SmithKline Beecham (SBH) report on their website Research and Development expenses for the last five years:
Year R & D expense (in £) Unamortized proportion Unamortized Value 1999 1018 1 1018 1998 910 0.8 728 1997 843 0.6 505.8 1996 764 0.4 305.6 1995 653 0.2 130.6
Suppose we assume that the amortizable life is five years. Then, if we are computing the value of R&D asset in 1999, none of the £1018 incurred this year will have been amortized; all of it will be added into the value of R&D asset. For 1998, 20% of that (or one-fifth) will be amortized, and the remaining 80% (0.8 times £910) will be included in the value of R&D asset. Proceeding thus, we have a value of £2688 for the R&D asset as of 1999.
Of course, if we capitalize R&D expenses to create a new asset, we will have to adjust Operating Income as well. We will add back R&D expenses, but then subtract the amortization of the R&D asset. Hence:
Adjusted Operating Income = Operating Income + R&D expenses - Amortization of the R&D asset
Adjusted Net Income = Net Income + R&D expenses - Amortization of the R&D asset
Apple Inc (AAPL)
From the information submitted to the SEC by Apple Inc. on 9/29/2007 (Source: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=107357&p=irol-SECText&TEXT=aHR0cDovL2NjYm4uMTBrd2l6YXJkLmNvbS94bWwvZmlsaW5nLnhtbD9yZXBvPXRlbmsmaXBhZ2U9NTI4NjAzNSZhdHRhY2g9T04%3d)
Apple Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively "Apple" or the "Company") design, manufacture, and market personal computers, portable digital music players, and mobile communication devices and sells a variety of related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions. The Company sells its products worldwide through its online stores, its retail stores, its direct sales force, and third-party wholesalers, resellers, and value-added resellers. In addition, the Company sells a variety of third-party Macintosh ("Mac"), iPod and iPhone compatible products, including application software, printers, storage devices, speakers, headphones, and various other accessories and peripherals through its online and retail stores. The Company sells to education, consumer, creative professional, business, and government customers. The Company's fiscal year is the 52 or 53-week period that ends on the last Saturday of September. Unless otherwise stated, all information presented in this Form 10-K is based on the Company's fiscal calendar.
The following financial statements information has been obtained from Disclosure (the financial data from 2003 to 2007 are obtained from Mergent Online):
Balance Sheet (in millions of dollars)
As Reported Annual Balance Sheet
Cash & cash equivalents
Accounts receivable, gross
Accounts receivable, net
Work in process
Deferred tax assets
Vendor non-trade receivables
NAND flash memory prepayments
Other current assets
Other current assets
Other current assets, net
Total current assets
Land & buildings
Machinery, equipment, & internal-use software
Office furniture & equipment
Property, plant & equipment, gross
Accumulated depreciation & amortization
Property, plant & equipment, net
Acquired intangible assets, net
Long-term NAND flash memory prepayments
Non-current deferred tax assets
Capitalized software development costs, net
Total other assets
Deferred revenue - current
Deferred margin on component sales
Other accrued tax liabilities
Accrued marketing & distribution
Accrued compensation & employee benefits
Accrued warranty & related costs
Other current liabilities
Total current liabilities
Deferred tax liabilities
Deferred revenue - non-current
Deferred tax liabilities
Other non-current liabilities
Deferred stock compensation
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
Total shareholders' equity
Total liabilities & shareholder's equity
Income Statement (in millions of dollars)
As Reported Annual Income Statement
Cost of sales
Research & development expense
Selling, general & administrative expense
Special charges: restructuring costs
Total operating expenses
Operating income (loss)
Gain (losses) on non-current investments, net
Gains on sales of short term investments
Other income (expense), net
Interest & other income, net
Other income & expenses
Interest & other income, net
Total interest & other income, net
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
Current federal income taxes expense (benefit)
Deferred federal income taxes expense (benefit)
Total federal income taxes expense (benefit)
Current state income taxes expense (benefit)
Deferred state income taxes expense (benefit)
Total state income taxes expense (benefit)
Current foreign income expense (benefit)
Deferred foreign income taxes expense (benefit)
Total foreign income taxes expense (benefit)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
Income (loss) before accounting change
Cumulative effect of accounting change, net
Net income (loss)
Year end shares outstanding
Software Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Development costs of computer software to be sold, leased, or otherwise marketed are subject to capitalization beginning when a product's technological feasibility has been established and ending when a product is available for general release to customers pursuant to SFAS No. 86, Computer Software to be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed. In most instances, the Company's products are released soon after technological feasibility has been established. Therefore, costs incurred subsequent to achievement of technological feasibility are usually not significant, and generally most software development costs have been expensed.
In 2007, the Company determined that both Mac OS X Version 10.5 Leopard ("Mac OS X Leopard") and iPhone achieved technological feasibility. During 2007, the Company capitalized $75 million of costs associated with the development of Leopard and iPhone. In accordance with SFAS No. 86, the capitalized costs related to Mac OS X Leopard and iPhone are amortized to cost of sales commencing when each respective product begins shipping and are recognized on a straight-line basis over a 3 year estimated useful life of the underlying technology.
Total amortization related to capitalized software development costs was $13 million, $18 million, and $16 million in 2007, 2006, and 2005, respectively.
Given the following information on the firm’s balance sheet, and income statement
1. If you were a financial analyst, how would you like to treat the R&D expense?
2. If you capitalize the expense, how large will it be? Since both Mac OS X Version 10.5 Leopard and iPhone have 3 years amortizable life, we can assume the other R&D expense can be amortized for 3 years. Estimate the value of the R&D asset as of September 29, 2007.
3. Operating income for 2007 has been disclosed as $4,409 million, compute the adjusted operating income if the company were capitalizing R&D.
Yes, it is significant to include R&D as an asset because the company’s future cash flows depend on research and development outlays.
Because the nature of the Apple’s products (for example the iPhone will become obsolete in about 3 years), the amortizable life of R&D is about 3 years.
Life of R&D = 3 years
at end of 2007
Amortization for 2007
Capitalized value of R&D for 2007 =
Total R&D Amortization Expense for 2007 =
Note: The amortization for the period of 2004 to 2006, we divide each R&D outlay by 3. The amortization for 2007 is zero.
From the above, the value of R&D asset, as of the end of 2007 would be $1,434.67 million.
Adjusted Operating Income = Operating Income + R&D Expense (R&D outlay for this year) - Amortization of R&D Asset
= 4,409 + 782 – 578.33 = $4,612.67 million
Similarly, on the liabilities side, a financial analyst would want to know the firm's debt-equity ratio, or equivalently, the debt ratio. Let's look at the simplest measure of the debt ratio.
The Debt Ratio:
How would you compute the debt ratio? Well, we know the debt ratio is defined as Total Debt/Total Assets: just find total debt and divide by total assets! However, we are faced with several questions: do we take long-term debt or only short-term debt? And what do we do with other liabilities, such as Provisions for Risks and Charges and Deferred Taxes? The custom is to only use Long-term debt in the computation of the debt ratio number. The reason is that short-term debt or other liabilities acquired in the normal running of the business are considered operational. The debt ratio is used more as a financing ratio -- as a measure of risk from a long-term perspective. If we use the example of GE (see below for the reported financial statements), the debt ratio would be 46603/304012 or 15.33% for 1997. However, we often use the identity Debt + Equity = Total assets to generate the Debt/Equity ratio. If we simply defined Equity as 34,438 (Total Common Equity), we would get a Debt/Equity ratio of 1.353. However, if we used the identity, we would get a debt-equity ratio of 0.1811 or 18.11%, which gives quite a different picture. If we are excluding current liabilities because they pertain to the operational side of the business, clearly it would be the 1.353 that would give us a better idea of the extent of the firm's leverage.
Yet another approach would be to rewrite the balance sheet by excluding all current assets and current liabilities and simply including net current liabilities (net of current assets) as an element on the liabilities side. (On the other hand, one might argue that it's more appropriate to include working capital on the assets side). Items such as Provisions for Risks, etc. could be folded into equity if they could be considered operational charges, effectively being financed by retained earnings. In this case, we would have net current liabilities of 29,367 (Current Liabilities - Current Assets), with total assets the being $212,711. Obviously, this would give us different numbers altogether.
A debt ratio, by itself, does not tell us much, however, until we compare it to the debt ratios of other firms. Hence, the main point, is to make sure that the ratios are constructed similarly for all firms. This again is the reason why many analysts look at the debt/equity ratio rather than the debt ratio.
For another example of debt-equity ratio computation, using AT&T, click here. This example highlights the different numbers that are computed by different sources.
In addition to the issues mentioned above, there are some liabilities that are not clearly laid out in the firm's balance sheet. For example, lease obligations and employee benefits are also liabilities, but these have to be estimated separately.
Here is an example using projected operating lease payments. Operating leases do not, under current GAAP rules, have to be reported as liabilities. Nevertheless, they are similar to liabilities, such as bonds, in that they constitute fixed cash outflows in the future.
Suppose a firm had equity with a book value of $800 million, and a market value of $1 billion. It has no debt at all. However, it does have operating leases. The estimated operating lease payments is $90 million for the next two years, 85 m. three years hence, 80m. each for the fourth and fifth year, and 75m. for the following five years. The firm's cost of debt is around 7%. How would a financial analyst capitalize these lease payments?
Since the projected operating lease payments have, more or less, the same risk characteristics as the firm's debt, it is reasonable to use the cost of debt to discount the lease payments. Doing this, we have the table below:
Year Operating Lease expense Present Value at7% 1 90 84.11215 2 90 78.60949 3 85 69.38532 4 80 61.03162 5 80 57.03889 6-10 75 219.2358 Sum of present values 569.4313
This gives us a debt value for the operating leases of $569.4313 million. The firm's debt-to-equity ratio now jumps from 0.0 to 0.57!
Of course, if the operating lease payments are capitalized, we need to adjust the assets side of the balance sheet as well. In fact, an asset of equal size will be created. In addition, operating income will be affected as well, since depreciation on this asset will have to be recognized; furthermore, the operating lease expenses that had originally been recognized will have to be added back to Operating Income, since these lease payments are no more expensed. On the other hand, there will be an imputed interest expense on the operating lease liability that will affect financing cash flows, but not operating income.
Damodaran suggests assuming, for convenience, that the interest expense on the debt created by converting operating leases be equal to the operating lease expense less the depreciation of the asset created by the operating leases. Using this assumption, we get:
Adjusted Operating Income = Operating Income - Depreciation on operating lease asset + operating lease expenses
= Operating Income + Imputed Interest expense on operating leases.
Net Income will not be affected because the imputed interest expense will have to be subtracted from Operating Income, just as any other interest expense would be.
Example 2: Here is another example in Excel.
Example 3: Here is a real-life example:
Look at the firm, Hologic, Inc. (HOLX). Suppose we were interested in capitalizing their operating lease expenses for the balance sheet for the year ending Sept. 30, 2006. Their 10Ks have the following information:
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (In thousands, except per share data)
Future minimum lease payments under all of the Company’s operating leases are approximately as follows:
Fiscal Years Ending Amount September 29, 2007 6,855 September 27, 2008 6,419 September 26, 2009 6,032 September 25, 2010 5,670 September 24, 2011 5,398 Thereafter 37,095
Operating lease payment information for the year ending September 30, 2006were not available on the 2006 10K submission. However, in the previous year's 10K submission, it was stated that minimum lease payments for the year ending Sept. 30, 2006 amounted to $4844. Hence we use this amount as the operating lease payment for 2006.
The 2006 10Ks also contain the following information (F-37): The Company conducts its operations in leased facilities under operating lease agreements that expire through fiscal 2022. The Company leases certain equipment under operating lease agreements that expire through fiscal 2015.
On the basis of this information, the $37,095 were equally distributed over the years 2012 through 2022. If one wanted to be more conservative, one could have spread out the payments only until 2015. However, we do not have enough information to figure out exactly what the payments are until 2015, and what the subsequent payments are.
Making the assumption of equal payments until 2022, we can compute the capitalized value of the operating lease by discounting the numbers back to 2006. For this, we need a discount rate, which should be the rate that HOLX would pay if it were issuing new debt with such a maturity in Sept. 2006. We don't have this information; however, (variable) interest rates on existing debt (maturing at various times from 2007 to 2011) were from 5% to 6.5% (p. 55 of 2006 10K). Of course, what we want is the fixed rate corresponding to such debt. However, if the term structure is relatively flat, then we could use these variable rates, which, at least, would include some default premium (even though a fixed rate might have a larger default premium). In any case, using this discount rate, we get a capitalized value of $44,362.38.
To compute the implied financing cost for 2006, we add 4844 (assumed to be the lease payment in 2006; see above) to $44,362.38, discount the result back one year and multiply by the int rate, to get 0.065(4844 + 44,362.38))/(1.065) = $3003.21. The corrected operating income, therefore is 50,339 + 3003.21 or $53,342.21
Statement of Retained Earnings:
This statement provides information on how much of the firms earnings were retained in the business, and how much were paid out in dividends, as well as the cumulative amount retained during the life of the business.
Statement of Retained Earnings, Rasputin Corporation for the Year Ending December 31, 1994.
Balance of retained earnings, December 31, 1993 $5989 Add Net Income, 1994 $586 Less: Dividends to Common Stockholders $165 Balance of Retained Earnings, December 31, 1994 $6410
Accounting flows versus cash flows
GAAP uses the realization principle, which recognizes revenue when the earnings process is virtually complete, and the value of an exchange of goods or services can be reliably determined. In practice, revenue is usually recognized at the time of a sale, whether or not cash is generated, as e.g. in the case of a credit sale.
Income statements contain other noncash items, such as depreciation. Depreciation is the recognition of the decrease in value of a productive asset over time, although based on a predetermined rule, rather than the actual value decrease. Clearly, there is no cash flow associated with depreciation; the actual cash flow would have occurred whenever the asset was paid for.
Time and Costs
It is common to treat costs as being variable or fixed depending on ones time horizon. For a given time horizon, all costs that are fixed within that time horizon are called fixed, and those that vary are called variable. For example, if the time horizon is relatively short, wages, payments to suppliers, etc. are variable, while machinery and plant are fixed. Given a sufficiently long horizon, all costs are variable. This concept is important to the financial manager in that it determines which costs are irrelevant for decision making because they are fixed, and hence unalterably sunk.
Average Versus Marginal Tax Rates:
The difference between these two concepts is similar to the concept of fixed versus variable costs. Just as variable costs are relevant for decision making, even though fixed costs, too, must be borne; similarly, the marginal tax rate is the relevant quantity for decision making, although all taxes must be paid.
The marginal tax rate is the tax paid on the marginal dollar of income. In other words, if income increases by one dollar, the total tax paid would increase by as many cents as the marginal tax rate.
- Operating activities are earnings-related activities. Generally these relate to Income Statement activities, and items included in working capital. Included are:
- Sales and expenses necessary to obtain sales
- Related operating activities, such as extending credit to customers
- investing in inventories
- obtaining credit from suppliers
- payment of taxes
- insurance payments
- Other activities that don't easily fit into the other two categories, such as settlements in lawsuits.
- Investing activities relate to the acquisition and disposal of noncash assets: assets which are expected to generate income for the company over a period of time. These include lending funds and collecting on these loans.
- Financing activities relate to the contribution, withdrawing and servicing of funds to support business activities.
Computation of Cash Flows:
Before looking at a more realistic set of financial statements, it is worthwhile looking at the general methodology used in computing cash flows. There are two ways of doing this: one, to start with the accounting numbers and then modifying them in order to arrive at the cash flow; two, to compute the cash flow numbers directly. We first look at the indirect method:
Net Cash flows provided by Operating Activities = Net Income + Depreciation - Increase in Receivables - Increase in Inventories + Increase in Accounts Payable
Two kinds of adjustments are shown above. One, noncash deductions from Net Income like depreciation are added back. Two, the effect of changes in working capital accounts that are due to non-cash transactions are undone. For example, if goods are sold on credit, two things occur: one, sales increase and thereby net income; two, accounts receivable increase by the same. However, no cash has come into the firm. Hence, we adjust for this by subtracting the increase in accounts receivable from Net Income. The other adjustments are similar.
Financing flows occur because of increases or decreases in the firm's common or preferred stock or in its long-term debt. Furthermore, he main entry under Investing Activities is Capital Expenditures. Hence, in simple cases, we could write:
Net Cash flows provided by Financing Activities = Net Proceeds from Long-term Borrowing + Net Proceeds from Sale of Common Stock - Cash Dividends paid to Stockholders Net Cash flows used by Investing Activities = Capital Expenditures
Cash at end of year = Cash at beginning of year + Net Cash flows provided by Operating Activities + Net Cash flows provided by Financing Activities- Net Cash flows used by Investing Activities
Using this model, we can compute for 1994:
Net Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities =
Net Income 586 + Depreciation +184 - Increase in Receivables -(1250-1200) - Increase in Inventories -(1683-1400) + Increase in Accounts Payable +(1149-1229) =357
Net Cash flows provided by Financing Activities =
Net Proceeds from Long-term Borrowing 4300-3475 + Net Proceeds from Sale of Common Stock +(1476-2000) - Cash Dividends paid to Stockholders -165 =136
Net Cash Flows Used by Investing Activities = Capital Expenditures = Ending Fixed Assets - Beginning Fixed Assets + Depreciation = 8315-8106+184 = 393.
We can now reconcile Beginning Cash with Ending Cash:
Ending Cash = Beginning Cash $1987 + Net Cash flows provided by Operating Activities + 357 + Net Cash flows provided by Financing Activities + 136 - Net Cash flows used by Investing Activities - 393 +$100 =$2087
Cash Flow computations are useful in Asset Valuation, in Capital Structure Analysis, and in Dividend Policy Analysis. A key concept for these purposes is Free Cash Flow to Equity, as well as Free Cash Flows to the firm. These are often conveniently defined using accounting quantities as:
Free Cash Flows to Equity (FCFE) = Net Income - (Capital Expenditures - Depreciation) - (Change in Noncash Working Capital) + (New Debt Issued - Debt Repayments) - Preferred Dividends Cash Flows to the Firm (FCFF) = EBIT (1-tax rate) - (Capital Expenditure - Depreciation) - (Change in Noncash Working Capital) Cash Flows to the Firm (FCFF) = FCFE + Interest Expense (1- tax rate) - (New Debt Issues - Principal Repayments) + Preferred Dividends.
Cashflow from Operating Activities as defined in the Statement of Cashflows is essentially Net Income + Depreciation - (Change in Noncash Working Capital). Hence, we have
Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF) = Cash Flows from Operating Activities from the Statement of Cashflows - (Capital expenditures required to maintain productive capacity) and
Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) = Cash Flows from Operating Activities from the Statement of Cashflows - (Capital expenditures required to maintain productive capacity) - (dividends on preferred stock) - (New Debt Issued - Debt Repayments).
However, we must keep in mind that the Statement of Cashflows is a historical document and computes historical quantities, while FCFF/FCFE are used to forecast. For this purpose, it is much better to use a more disaggregated model of cashflows so that appropriate assumptions can be made regarding the different components of free cashflow. Thus, we might have different models to forecast future values of change in working capital as opposed to net income and depreciation.
An alternate approach to the computation of Net Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities:
The formula provided above for Net Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities, however, do not take into account other sources of cash flows. For example, there may be an entry for changes in prepaid expenses, which would have to be deducted from Net Income. Prepaid expenses refer to expenses pertaining to income generation in future periods, which nevertheless have been paid in advance. Since they do not relate to income this period, they don't show up in the current Income statement; however, since they represent operating cash outflows, they must be taken into account in the Statement of Cash Flows.
In principle, it would be necessary to first adjust each item in the Income Statement to take into account any non-cash entries, and then to take into account cashflows that have occurred in the current period, but have not been recorded in the Income Statement because they do not pertain to this period's income.
However, many of the non-cash entries in the Income Statement would probably show up as changes in Current Assets or Current Liabilities. Furthermore, any cashflows occuring in the current period, but not pertaining to this period's income would also show up as changes in Current Assets or Current Liabilities, provided that these assets/liabilities have a maturity of one year or less. Hence, an alternate approach to computing the Net Cash Flow provided by Operating Activities would be to begin with Net Income, subtract from that the changes in non-cash Working Capital, and then make adjustments for items that are Current Assets or Current Liabilities, but do not pertain to Operations (i.e. add back changes in such items if they are assets, and subtract changes in such items if they are liabilities). The following formula gives some examples of such adjustments. However, it must be noted that these examples are not exhaustive.
Net Cash Flow provided by Operating Activities = Net Income - Change in Noncash Working Capital - Change in Dividends Payable + Depreciation
Computation of Capital Expenditures
It must be noted that Depreciation in the Income Statement could vary from the change in Accumulated Depreciation recorded in the Balance Sheet under Property, Plant and Equipment. This is because there could be other sources of Depreciation, such as in Cost of Goods sold. Only the depreciation recorded under Property, Plant and Equipment is relevant for the computation of capital expenditures. Furthermore, the computation as shown above assumes that any sales of Property, Plant and Equipment is done at book value. If there is a loss or gain, that can complicate the computation of capital expenditures.
Let's now take an actual firm's financial statements and note the problems involved in computing various financial ratios, as well as in reconstructing the Cash Flow Statement, using the information provided. Here's information on GE's Financial Statements for 1996 and 1997.
(In millions of $) Assets Liabilities 1997 1996 Difference 1997 1996 Difference Cash and marketable securities 76,482 64,080 12,402 Current Liabilities 120,668 100,507 20,161 Noncash Current Assets 14,819 13,177 1,642 Long Term Debt 46,603 49,246 -2,643 Other Investments 10,320 9,148 1,172 Prov Risks/Charges 5,484 5,177 307 Invst in Assoc Companies 5,983 6,442 -459 Deferred Taxes 8,651 8,273 378 Long Term Receivables 121,454 115,132 6,322 Other Liabilities 84,486 75,067 9,419 Prop Plant Eq-Gross 55,657 50,784 4,873 Total Liabilities 265,892 238,270 27,622 Less Accum. Depreciation 23,341 21,989 1,352 Minority Interest 3,682 3,007 675 Net PP&E 32,316 28,795 3,521 Common Shareholder's Equity 6,368 3,763 2,605 Less Treasury Stock 15,268 11,308 3,960 Other Assets 42,638 35,628 7,010 plus Retained Earnings 43,338 38,670 4,668 Total Common Equity 34,438 31,125 3,313 Total Assets 304,012 272,402 31,610 Total Liabs and Equity 304,012 272,402 31,610
Here is the Income Statement for 1996 and 1997 (in millions):
1996 1997 Net Sales or Revenue 90,777 79,082 Cost of Goods Sold 34,724 28,637 Gross Income 51,971 46,660 Depreciation and Amortization 4,082 3,785 Selling, Gen and Admn expenses 9,367 8,160 Total Operating Expenses 48,173 40,582 Operating Income 42,604 38,500 Non Operating Interest Income 1 18 Extra Charges - Pretax 3,401 0 Other Income/Expenses - Net -20,939 -19,539 Interest Expense 8,384 7,904 Pretax Income 9,881 11,075 Income Taxes 2,976 3,526 Minority Interest 240 269 After tax Other Income/Expenditures 1,538 0 Net Income 8,203 7,280
Outflows 1997 1996 Increase from 1996 to 1997 Operating Activity Investing Activity Financing Activity Assets (in millions) Cash and Equivs 76,482 64,080 12,402 Net Receivables 8,924 8,704 220 220 Raw Materials 3,070 3,028 42 Finished Goods 2,895 2,404 491 Progress Payments & Other -70 -959 889 Inventories 5,895 4,473 1,422 1422 Tot Current Assets 91,301 77,257 14,044 Other Investments 10,320 9,148 1,172 1,172 Invst in Assoc Cos 5,983 6,442 -459 -459 Long Term Receivables 121,454 115,132 6,322 6,322 PP&E - Gross 55,657 50,784 4,873 7,6031 Accum Depr. 23,341 21,989 1,352 -4,0821 Net PP&E 32,316 28,795 3,521 Deferred Charges 9,095 7,832 1,263 1,263 Other Tangible Assets 14,422 11,789 2,633 2,633 Intang Other Assets 19,121 16,007 3,114 3,114 Other Assets 42,638 35,628 7,010 Total Assets 304,012 272,402 31,610 Liabilities Accounts Payable 10,407 10,205 202 -202 ST Debt and Curr Portion of LT debt 98,075 80,200 17,875 -17,875 Accrued Payroll 1,321 1,315 6 -6 Dividends Payable 979 855 124 -124 Income Taxes Payable 2,866 2,487 379 -379 Other Current Liabs 7,020 5,445 1,575 -1,575 Tot Curr Liabs 120,668 100,507 20,161 Long Term Debt 46,603 49,246 -2,643 2,643 Provisions for Risks/Charges 5,484 5,177 307 -307 Deferred Taxes 8,651 8,273 378 -378 Other Liabs 84,486 75,067 9,419 -9,419 Tot Liabs 265,892 238,270 27,622 Unrealized Sec Gains/Losses 2,138 671 1,467 -1,467
Minority Interest 3,682 3,007 675 -675 Common Stock/Ordinary Capital 594 594 0 Capital Surplus 2,838 2,442 396 -396 Retained Earnings 43,338 38,670 4,668 -8,2032 3,5352 Unrealized ForEx Gains/Losses 798 56 742 -742 Treasury Stock 15,268 11,308 3,960 3,960 Common Shareholders Equity 34,438 31,125 3,313 Tot Liabs and Equity 304,012 272,402 31,610 Computed Cash and Cash Equivalent Outflows -25,043 15,326 -2,685 Computed Cash (only) Outflows -14,311 15,326 -2,685 Reported Cash (only) Outflows -14,240 18,275 -5,705
Using the information generated above, we can write out the Statement of Cash Flows:
- Increase in Gross PP&E is only $4,873. However, Increase in Accumulated Depreciation is only $1,352, whereas Depreciation Expense is $4,082. The reason for the lower value of Accumulated Depreciation is presumed to be Asset Sales of $2,730 (4,082-1,352). Hence Capital Expenditures are presumed to be $7,603 (Increase in Gross PP&E + Asset Sales).
- Increase in Retained Earnings of $4,668 can be computed as Net Income ($8,203) less Dividends Declared ($3,535).
- Note that in order to consistently record all entries in the last three columns as outflows, the cashflow entries for liabilities will be the negative of the fourth column (Increase from 1997 to 1996). Thus, Increase in Net Receivables is recorded in the Operating Cashflow column as 220, because an increase in receivables implies that goods of the corresponding have been sold to customers, without a corresponding payment inflow; the entry in the fourth column is also 220, since that is the amount by which Net Receivables for 1997 is higher compared to Receivables for 1996. On the other hand, Increase in Accounts Payables is recorded in the Operating Cashflow column as -202, even though the 1997 figure is greater than the 1996 figure by 202. This is because an increase in Accounts Payables means that goods have been purchased to the tune of 202, without a corresponding payment; i.e. there has been an inflow of 202, rather than an outflow. In order to consistently record flows as outflows, we must record the number as -202. (However, note Depreciation and Dividends.)
Cash Flows from Operating Activities Net Income 8,203 Add (deduct) adjustments to cash basis: Increase in accounts receivables -220 Increase in Inventory -1,422 Increase in Long-term receivables -6,322 Depreciation 4,082 Increase in Accounts Payable 202 Increase in ST debts and currentportion of LT debt 17,875 Increase in Accrued Payroll 6 Increase in Income Taxes Payable 379 Increase in Other Current Liabs 1,575 Increase in Provisions for Risks/Charges 307 Increase in Deferred Taxes 378 Net Cash Flows from Operating Activities 14,311 Cash Flows from Investing Activities Increase in Other Investments -1,172 Decrease in Investments in Associated Cos 459 Capital Expenditures -7,603 Increase in Deferred Charges -1,263 Increase in Other Tangible Assets -2,633 Increase in Other Intangible Assets -3,114 Net Cash Flows from Investing Activities -15,326 Cash Flows from Financing Activities Dividends Declared -3,535 Increase in Dividends Payable (adjustment to dividends declared) 124 Decrease in Long-Term Debt (Debt Repayments) -2,643 Decr in Treasury Stock (Stock repurchase) -3,960 Increase in Minority Interest 675 Incr in Unrealized Securities Gains/Losses 1,467 Incr. Unrecognized ForEx Gains/Losses 742 Increase in Other Liabs 9,419 Net Cash Flows from Financing Activities 2,685 Net Increase in Cash and Equivalents 12,402 Beginning Cash and Equivalents 64,080 Add Increase from SCF 12,402 Ending Cash and Equivalents 76,482
Treatment of Cash and Cash Equivalents:
- Minority Interest represents the proportionate stake of minority shareholders in a company's majority-owned subsidiary that is consolidated. Since the parent includes all net assets of a consolidated subsidiary in its financial statements, it reports the minority's interest as a credit.
- Actual Dividends paid equal $3,535 - $124 = $3,411.
- Deferred Charges are costs incurred but deferred because they are expected to benefit future periods or are prepaids benefitting future periods. Examples are prepaid pension costs and certain intangibles.
Our computed numbers do not match precisely with the Reported Statement of Cash Flows; part of the problem is that our balance sheet combines figures for Cash and Cash Equivalents. The reported numbers are:
1996 1997 Change Cash (from reported SCF) 4,191 5,861 1,670 Cash and Equivalents (from Balance Sheet) 64,080 76482 12,402 Equivalents 59,889 70621 10,732
If we include this increase in Cash Equivalents as an operating cash flow, we need to modify our figure for Cash and Cash Equivalent Outflows by $10,732 in order to get the corresponding figure for cash outflows alone. Our Operating Cash Outflows becomes -25,043 + 10,732 = -14,311.
There is still a discrepancy between the reported numbers and the numbers that we have computed. If some of the posited asset sales were made at a price higher than the book value, there would be a gain from the sale of assets that would be included in Net Income. This amount would need to be subtracted from Net Income, giving us a lower value for Operating Cash Flows. It would then be added to Cash Flows from Investing, since it is more properly an investing flow, than an operating flow.
Furthermore, there were several acquisitions made by GE during 1997. If GE used the purchase method to account for the acquisition, then the flows that we have in our computations assigned to Operating Flows should be reassigned to Cash Flows from Investing. This would also cause some discrepancies between our computations and the reported SCF numbers.
Here is the complete Statement of Cash Flows reported by GE:
CASH FLOW PROVIDED BY OPERATING ACTIVITY (in millions of dollars) Net Income (Loss) 8,203 Depreciation/Amortization 4,082 Net Incr (Decr) Assets/Liabs 1,733 Other Adjustments, Net 222 Net Cash Prov (Used) by Oper 14,240 CASH FLOW PROVIDED BY INVESTING ACTIVITY(in millions of dollars) (Incr) Decr in Prop, Plant -6,137 (Acq) Disp of Subs, Business -5,245 (Incr) Decr in Securities Inv -1,898 Other Cash Inflow (Outflow) -4,995 Net Cash Prov (Used) by Inv -18,275 CASH FLOW PROVIDED BY FINANCING ACTIVITY(in millions of dollars) Issue (Purchase) of Equity -2,815 Issue (Repayment) of Debt 21,249 Incr (Decr) In Borrowing -10,103 Dividends, Other Distribution -3,411 Other Cash Inflow (Outflow) 785 Net Cash Prov (Used) by Finan 5,705 Net Change in Cash or Equiv 1,670 Cash or Equiv at Year Start 4,191 Cash or Equiv at Year End 5,861
The Impact of Capital Structure on Total Returns to Suppliers of Capital
Example: The Menendez Corporation expects to have sales of $12m. in 1998. Costs other than depreciation are expected to be 75% of sales, and depreciation is expected to be $1.5m. All sales revenue will be collected in cash, and costs other than depreciation must be paid for during the year. Menendezs federal-plus-state tax rate is 40%.
Income Statement (in millions of dollars):
Sales $12 Costs of Goods Sold 9 Depreciation 1.5 Net Profit 1.5 Taxes .6 After Tax Income 0.9
Total returns to investors = $0.9m.
Total cash flow = 0.9 (After-tax income) + 1.5 (Depreciation) = 2.4m.
Suppose Menendez were financed with debt as well as equity, and interest payments in 1998 totalled $0.5 m. Then the Income Statement would read as follows:
Income Statement (in millions of dollars):
Sales $12 Costs of Goods Sold 9 Depreciation 1.5 Interest paid 0.5 Net Profit 1.0 Taxes .4 After Tax Income 0.6
Total Returns to Investors = 0.6 to stockholders + 0.5 to bondholders = 1.1m.
Note that the second capital structure decreased taxes paid by 0.2m and thus increased total returns to investors (stockholders as well as bondholders) by 0.2m. from 0.9m to 1.1m.