301E POWER, INFLUENCE, AND AUTHORITY
Students focus on how political actors, skilled in affairs
of state, (a) economize violence by using types of power (power, influence,
authority) which are relatively clean when they can, and (b) still economize
violence when urgency or expedience demand “quick and dirty” fixes.
Techniques of power, influence, and authority are systematically analyzed
and compared for cost-effectiveness and counter-intuitivity with methods of
force and manipulation. Political
science classics by N. Machiavelli, C. Merriam, and P. Bachrach are analyzed and
supplemented with J. S. Forrester, C. Graves, C. Quigley, and Neil Smelser for
Textbooks Some classics
that are preferred by the professor are printed to order and need to be special
ordered well in advance.
Bachrach, Peter, and Morton S. Baratz, Power and Poverty: Theory
and Practice (1970). Anyone can
use the published material, although note that Dr. Gregory Julian has
entitlements via Bachrach who advised him.
Havel, Vaclav, et al,
The Power of the Powerless (Armonk,
NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1985). This
documents demonstrates of the power of the pen and the moral credibility of
Havel in what became “the velvet revolution.”
Living within the truth overcame living within the lie—in time.
Almond, G. A., and G. A. Powell, Jr., Comparative Politics: A
Theoretical Framework (New York: HarperCollins, 1996). Functional approach to processes, structures, performances
works for calibrating comparisons.
do you want them to know?
In regard to a centralizing theme or topic—power and
manifestations of it—to integrate skills drawn from other liberal arts and
synthesize political science as “the master science” and “the queen of the
disciplines.” Conceptual, empirical, and comparative approaches to political
science are to be seen cross-fertilizing with Anthropology, Economics, History,
Political Science, Psychology, Sociology in domestic politics, international
relations, and globalized interactions.
They need to differentiate and use at will elitist
and pluralist assumptions and definitions vis-à-vis power.
They need to know how to distinguish single-case studies,
systematic comparative analyses, and global generalizations.
do you want them to do?
Utilize text and library reference materials.
Become facile with print (not just on-line) sources and to be critical of
reliability. Use newspapers (and
news weeklies, monthlies) of record—e.g., The
New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, World Press Review.
Cite accurately in standard form.
Affairs, Daedalus, P.S., and such quality periodicals in frequent reading.
Read with understanding and utilize scholarly works and
articles in academic journals by premier political scientists on power.
American Political Science Review
is required. Scholarly
journals—whether invitational or peer-reviewed for content—apropos power are
to be searched and incorporated. Locate
documents published by governments, United Nations, or nongovernmental
organizations that pertain to successful, partial, failed, and disastrous
efforts at production of intended effects.
habits of mind are they to form?
Identify, distinguish, and utilize models of analysis; use
in single cases and in middle-range/global comparisons—and know the
Distinctive viewpoints—or biases—of diverse scholars
and practitioners are to be recognized when encountered. Conflicts and irreconcilability of particular frameworks are
to be identified when found—rather than forced to merge forming internally
inconsistent reports. Analogies and
correspondences are to be noted when found.
will you know?
Two sequences will be done of Prospectus, Draft, Abstract,
Sequence #1 will be elitist.
Sequence #2 will be pluralist.
Each will have a Hypothesis
based on the viewpoint, asserted positively and declaratively as a statement of
Definitions will be drawn expressly
from hypothesis. They will be based
on scholars who use the specific viewpoint, expressed functionally, depending on
scholarly sources in preference to general dictionaries.
Scope will express broad-scale,
general-range in all-encompassing perspective.
Limits will state narrowed focus of
Methodology will explain strictly
technical procedures of analysis and presentation.
Presentation will be fully consistent
within foregoing and will prefigure contents of subsequent sections.
Tabular synopsis will be used
to array evidence in short paper and will be guide to contents in long paper.
Summary will be used if high points,
comparisons, or contrasts merit emphasis. Comments
will be used if subjective or editorial remarks are important.
Editorializing, digressions, eureka moments, suggestions for further
research will be placed here.
Conclusion will refer to status of
Sources will be fully and traceably
cited, whether footnotes or bibliography.
Cumulative correction and continuity of prospectus à
rough draft à
finished piece—for both sequences.
Single case and narrow-gauge
sources—about particular states, specific events, exemplary persons or
groups—will be for students respectively to compile for their individual
research. Suggestions of more
general interest are listed below
Berle, Adolf A., Jr., Power
Without Property: A New Development
in American Political Economy (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World
Crockett, Norman L., ed., The Power Elite
in America (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1970).
The collection provides important sample of viewpoints.
Dahl, Robert A., Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City (New Haven, CT:
De Grazia, Sebastian, “What Authority Is Not,”
American Political Science Review,
Vol. 53, No. 2 (June 1959), pp. 321-331.
Field, G. Lowell, “Hypotheses for a Theory of Political Power,” American
Political Science Review, Vol. 45, No. 3 (1951), pp. 716-723.
Friedrich, Carl J., ed., Authority
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ Press, 1958).
Gamson, William A., Power and Discontent
(Homewood, IL: Dorsey, 1968).
Gamson, William A., Bruce Fireman, and Steven Rytina, Encounters
with Unjust Authority (Homewood, IL: Dorsey, 1982).
Green, Philip, and Sanford Levinson, eds., Power
and Community: Dissenting Essays in
Political Science (New York: Random House Vintage, 1970).
Hunter, Floyd, Community Power Structure:
A Study of Decision Makers (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina,
1953; Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor, 1963).
Jouvenel, Bertrand de, On Power (©
1948, Boston: Beacon, BP133).
Katznelson, Ira, and Kesselman, Mark, The
Politics of Power: A Critical
Introduction to American Government (3rd ed.; New York: Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich, 1987).
Kaufman, Herbert, and Victor Jones, “The Mystery of Power,” Public
Administration Review, Vol. 14 (1954), pp. 205-212.
Keohane, Robert O., and Joseph S. Nye, Power
and Independence (2nd ed.; Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1989).
Korda, Michael, Power!
How to Get It, How to Use It (New York: Ballantine, 1975).
Lasswell, Harold, Power and Personality
(© 1948, W. W. Norton; New York: Viking, 1962).
Lasswell, Harold D., and Abraham Kaplan, Power
and Society: A Framework for
Political Inquiry (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1950).
March, James G., “An Introduction to the Theory and Measurement of
Influence,” Journal of Politics, 1957, pp. 202-226.
Merriam, Charles E., Political Power (©
1934, reprinted by Collier BS 196). If
available “printed to order” when wanted, this would be excellent text.
Mills, C. Wright, The Power Elite (New
York, Oxford, 1959).
Moore, Barrington, Jr., Political Power
and Social Theory (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1958).
Morgenthau, Hans J., “Power as a Political Concept,” in Young, Roland, ed., Approaches fo the Study of Politics (Evanston: Northwestern Univ.
Press, 1959), pp. 66-77.
Nieburg, H. L., Political Violence:
The Behavioral Process (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1969).
Nisbet, Robert A., Community and Power,
formerly The Quest for Community (New
York: Oxford Univ. Press Galaxy, 1962).
Parenti, Michael, Power and the Powerless
(New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1978).
Presthus, Robert, Men at the Top: A Study in Community Power (New York: Oxford Univ. Press,
Riker, William H., “Some Ambiguities in the Notion of Power,” American
Political Science Review, Vol. 58, No. 2 (June 1964), pp. 341-349.
Riker, William H., “A Test of the Adequacy of the Power Index,” Behavioral
Science, 1959, pp. 120-131.
Rogow, Arnold A., and Harold D. Lasswell, Power,
Corruption, and Rectitude (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963).
Rosinski, Herbert, Power and Human Destiny,
ed. Richard P. Stebbins (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965).
Russell, Bertrand, Power:
A New Social Analysis (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1962).
Schermerhorn, Richard A., Society and
Power (New York: Random House, 1961).
UNESCO, Violence and Its Causes (Paris: UNESCO, 1981).
Simon, Herbert A., “Notes on the Observation and Measurement of Political
Power,” Journal of Politics, Vol. 15 (1953), pp. 500-516.
Sprout, Harold, and Margaret Sprout, Foundations
of National Power (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1945).
This became a classic and appeared in later editions.
Walter, E. V., “Power and Violence,” American
Political Science Review, Vol. 58, No. 2 (June 1964), pp. 350-360.
Walter, E. V., “Power, Civilization, and the Psychology of Conscience,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 53, No. 3 (September 1959),